emNet

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emNet is the industry-leading IP stack for embedded systems. The professional IP stack is renowned for a high-performance implementation with a small memory footprint and outstanding documentation as well as multiple optional add-ons.

Hardware related technical terms

When describing the hardware of Ethernet or Internet capable systems a collection of terms is used that at one point or another might collide with other terms. The most popular misunderstanding is the term MAC which is often used to describe the MAC address which is the unique Ethernet hardware address assigned to an Ethernet host. At the same time MAC is short for the MAC unit which is typically the Ethernet controller and Ethernet DMA in an MCU.

List of hardware related terms:

Supported protocols

IP (short for any Ethernet or Internet related) stack runs on various protocols that are classified into different layers in the OSI model.

Data link protocols

Data link protocols (often also called Link Layer protocols) are specific to a transport media such as Ethernet or PPP. The most popular example is the ARP protocol used with Ethernet linked networks. They encapsulate or help to utilize higher layer protocols like IPv4 or IPv6 that use further encapsulation for their data to provide ease of access by using easier to remember addresses and the required negotiation for it.

Excerpt of the supported Data link protocols:

Network protocols

Network protocols describe the protocols used above the link layer protocols. Protocols like IPv4 and IPv6 can be used on top of different Data link protocols. Their main purpose is to provide easier to read addressing for example by providing an address based on 4 decimal numbers for IPv4 rather than 6 hex octets used as MAC address. They may also provide additional features such as packet prioritizing and other protocol specific flags.

While Network protocols typically encapsulate higher layer Transport protocols the ICMP protocol that is widely known for its PING feature is a special case as it sits atop the IPv4 or IPv6 layer but is not considered to be a Transport protocol. It is seen as part of the Network protocols as it does not provide further encapsulation that is specific to Transport protocols.

Excerpt of the supported Network protocols:

Transport protocols

Transport protocols describe the most widely known type of protocols to the customer. Most prominent protocols that the Internet and home networks run on are the TCP protocol and UDP protocol. Other protocols like the RAW protocol exist as well but are less known due to their special use cases.

Excerpt of the supported Transport protocols: